Our work focuses on the ion-transport processes involved in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi), and how these transporters are themselves regulated by cell volume, hormones, and oncogenes. Our laboratory uses pH-sensitive microelectrodes and dyes (including digital imaging techniques) to monitor pHi in single cells (e.g., neurons, glia, muscle, mesangial cells, osteoclasts, and cells of perfused renal tubules, gastric glands and colonic crypts). The primary objective is to deduce mechanisms by which acids and bases are transported across membranes, how the transporters are regulated, and how pHi changes affect processes such as growth control, transepithelial acid-base transport, and the tone of vascular smooth muscle. We are also expressing the electrogenic acid-base transporters that are responsible for glutamate uptake in the nervous system, as well as oligopeptide uptake. Finally, we are attempting to clone the genes for bicarbonate transport proteins.